[R] Pointwise Confidence Bounds on Logistic Regression
Rolf Turner
r.turner at auckland.ac.nz
Thu Jun 19 00:22:05 CEST 2008
On 19/06/2008, at 9:32 AM, Prof Brian Ripley wrote:
> On Thu, 19 Jun 2008, Rolf Turner wrote:
>
>>
>> On 19/06/2008, at 8:08 AM, Bryan Hanson wrote:
>>
>>> Hi all. I hope I have my terminology right here...
>>> For a simple lm, one can add “pointwise confidence bounds” to a
>>> fitted line
>>> using something like
>>>> predict(results.lm, newdata = something, interval = "confidence")
>>> (I'm following DAAG page 154-155 for this)
>>> I would like to do the same thing for a glm of the logistic
>>> regression type,
>>> for instance, the example in MASS pg 190-192 (available in the
>>> help page for
>>> predict.glm).
>>> However, predict.glm does not have the same kind of features as
>>> "plain old"
>>> predict, i.e. One cannot specify interval = "confidence"
>>
>> I guess that one reason for that is that prediction intervals
>> rarely if ever make sense with generalized linear models. So only
>> one kind of interval is in effect possible.
>>>> From what I've read, "pointwise confidence bounds" are computed
>>>> from the
>>> SE's for each point. However, I don't see quite where to extract
>>> this
>>> information with a glm
>>> So, is there an existing function that does what I am describing
>>> for a glm,
>>> or can someone point me in the right direction to start writing
>>> my own?
>>
>> Use predict(<whatever>,type="response",se.fit=TRUE). You get a
>> list with
>> three components, the first two of which are the fitted values and
>> their
>> standard errors. (The third is the ``scale'' factor, usually/
>> often equal to 1.)
>
> I would suggest rather computing confidence intervals on linear
> predictor scale
> and transforming those to response scale. That way you will not
> get e.g. negative
> values for probabilities in a logistic regression.
I think that for once Brian, you are being too kind! :-) My advice
was even dumber than
you indicate.
E.g. in a logistic model, with (say) eta = beta_0 + beta_1*x one may
find, on the
linear predictor scale, A and B (say) such that P(A <= eta <= B) = 0.95.
Then P(expit(A) <= expit(eta) <= expit(B)) = 0.95, which is exactly
what is wanted.
Doing what I suggested gives C and D (say) such that P(C <= E(expit
(eta-hat)) <= D) = 0.95
(where ``E'' means expected value).
But of course, although E(eta-hat) = eta, it is *NOT* true that E
(expit(eta-hat)) = expit(eta).
So what I proposed does NOT give the confidence interval that is
desired.
Duhhhhh. Apologies (to Bryan Hanson) for being misleading.
cheers,
Rolf
[It probably doesn't make a *lot* of practical difference ``usually''
--- and the standard
errors are approximations anyway ... but one might as well get it
right. Sigh.]
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