# [R] Meta-analysis on a repeated measures design with multiple trials per subject using metafor

Viechtbauer Wolfgang (STAT) wolfgang.viechtbauer at maastrichtuniversity.nl
Thu Jul 4 23:21:46 CEST 2013

```Dear Marc,

Let me see if I understand the type of data you have. You say that you have 5 experiments. And within each experiment, you have n subjects and for each subject, you have data in the form described in your post. Now for each subject, you want to calculate some kind of measure that quantifies how much more likely it was that subjects gave/chose response 2 under treatment 2 versus treatment 1. So, you would have n such values. And then you want to pool those values over the n subjects within a particular experiment and then ultimately over the 5 experiments. Is that correct so far?

Assuming I got this right, let me ask you about those data that you have for each subject. In particular, are these paired data? In other words, is there are 1:1 relationship between the 30 trials under treatment 1 versus treatment 2? Or phrased yet another way, can you construct a table like this for every subject:

trt 2
------------
resp1 resp2
trt 1 resp1  a     b      10
resp2  c     d      20
20    10     30

Note that I added the marginal counts based on your example data, but this is not sufficient to reconstruct how often response 1 was chosen for the same trial under both treatment 1 and treatment 2 (cell "a"). And so on for the other 3 cells.

If all of this applies, then essentially you are dealing with dependent proportions and you can calculate the difference y = (20/30)-(10/30) as you have done. The corresponding sampling variance can be estimated with v = var(y) = (a+b)*(c+d)/t^3 + (a+c)*(b+d)/t^3 - 2*(a*d/t^3 - b*c/t^3) (where t is the number of trials, i.e., 30 in the example above). See, for example, section 10.1.1. in Agresti (2002) (Categorical data analysis, 2nd ed.).

So, ultimately, you will have n values of y and v for a particular experiment and then the same thing for all 5 experiments. You can then pool those values with rma(yi, vi) in metafor (yi and vi being the vectors of the y and v values). You probably want to add a factor to the model that indicates which experiment those values came from. So, something like: rma(yi, vi, mods = ~ factor(experiment)).

Well, I hope that I understood your data correctly.

Best,
Wolfgang

--
Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Ph.D., Statistician
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology
School for Mental Health and Neuroscience
Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences
Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616 (VIJV1)
6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
+31 (43) 388-4170 | http://www.wvbauer.com
________________________________________
From: r-help-bounces at r-project.org [r-help-bounces at r-project.org] On Behalf Of Marc Heerdink [m.w.heerdink at uva.nl]
Sent: Wednesday, July 03, 2013 2:15 PM
To: r-help at r-project.org
Subject: [R] Meta-analysis on a repeated measures design with multiple trials per subject using metafor

Hi all,

I am currently attempting to compile a summary of a series of five
psychological experiments, and I am trying to do this using the metafor
package. However, I am quite unsure which of the scenarios described in
the metafor help pages applies to these data, because it is a repeated
measures design, with multiple trials in each condition.

Assume that for every participant, I have a basic contingency table such
as this one:

treatment
1       2
response
1               10      20
2               20      10

(if this ASCII version does not work, I have 30 trials in each
treatment, and participants give either response 1 or 2; the exact
numbers don't matter)

The problem that I am trying to solve is how to convert these numbers to
an effect size estimate that I can use with metafor.

As far as I understand it, I can only use it to get an effect size for
outcomes that are dichotomous; i.e., either 1 or 0 for any subject.
However, I have proportion data for every participant.

I have considered and tried these strategies:

1. Base the effect size on within-participant proportion differences.
That is, in the table above, the treatment effect would be
(20/30)-(10/30) = 1/3; and I would take the M and SD of these values to
estimate a study-level effect ("MN" measure in metafor).

2. Use the overall treatment * response contingency table, ignoring the
fact that these counts come from different participants ("PHI" or "OR"
measures in metafor). In a study with 10 participants, I would get cell
counts around 150.

However, from the research I've done into this topic, I know that 1) is
not applicable to (as far as I understand) an odds ratio, and I suspect
2) overestimates the effect.

A third method would be to use the regression coefficients, that I can
easily obtain since I have all the raw data that I need. However, it is
unclear to me whether and if yes, how I can use these in the metafor
package.

this list (1), I understand that having access to the raw data is an
advantage, but I am not sure whether the scenario mentioned applies to
my situation.

1:
http://r.789695.n4.nabble.com/meta-analysis-with-repeated-measure-designs-td2252644.html

I would very much appreciate any suggestions or hints on this topic.

Regards,
Marc
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