# [R] What is best way to calculate % of time?

John Kane jrkr|de@u @end|ng |rom gm@||@com
Wed Dec 25 20:30:57 CET 2019

```Hi Bruce,
You replied just to me. I have taken the liberty of cc:ing R-help as there
lots of more knowledgeable people than me there who may be able to help.
In the meantime I remain confused.
Here is my impression of the sample data that you supplied. I have combined
Date & Time into a single POSIXct variable, dtime. Just paste it into
<b>R</b>
##===============================================================##
dat2 <- structure(list(Species = structure(c(1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L,
1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L,
2L, 2L, 2L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L), .Label =
c("Buzz", "Ptedav", "Ptemes"), class = "factor"), Location = c(7716L,
7716L, 7716L, 7716L, 7716L, 7716L, 7716L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L,
7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L,
7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L,
7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L, 7717L,
7717L), dtime = structure(c(948758700, 948758700, 948758700, 948761220,
948761220, 948761220, 948761220, 962655420, 962655420, 962655420,
962655420, 962656200, 962656200, 962656200, 962656200, 962655240,
962655300, 962655300, 962655300, 962655300, 962655300, 962655420,
962655420, 962655420, 962655480, 962655480, 962655480, 962655480,
962655480, 962666100, 962666460, 962666520, 962666580, 962666700,
962666760, 962666820, 962666880, 962666940, 962667180, 962667300,
962667360, 962667420), class = c("POSIXct", "POSIXt"), tzone = "UTC")),
class = "data.frame", row.names = c(NA, -42L))
##===============================================================##
<b>The 6 letter species codes relate to individual bat species and the Buzz
= Feeding buzz that indicates a feeding attempt by a given bat. So the
"codes" are both species and information on the call type.</b>
But, at the moment you have two variables in the one column, Species: The
type of bat and feeding behaviour.
<b>The date/time is when the species was recorded and is linked to the
location.</b>
Okay. Will this give us a unique key?
<b>Therefore to run the summary stats I need I will need to remove the
duplicate times that are rounded to the minute</b>
What duplicate times? Where are they? When are they rounded?
I have never used Access. Will it produce a data dictionary? Can it export
a small subset of the relevant data to another Access DB, some other DB or
in .csv format? At the moment I just cannot visualize what your data layout
looks like.
Can you point us to any documentation that explains what information in
being gathered—preferably in simple–minded English?

On Wed, 25 Dec 2019 at 12:08, Neotropical bat risk assessments <
neotropical.bats using gmail.com> wrote:

> Hi John,
>
> Likely TMI but....
>
> The example was only to show the data format, clearly not the entire data
> set. ;-)
> Analyses will be by locations, dates and species in any case so small
> subsets.
>
> My master relational database has >1.9 million records.  These are
> acoustic data recordings of bats and includes data fro >425 species.
>
> The 6 letter species codes relate to individual bat species and the Buzz =
> Feeding buzz that indicates a feeding attempt by a given bat.  So the
> "codes" are both species and information on the call type.
>
> So yes, if a call includes a feeding buzz it is noted as Buzz in addition
> to the species ID codes..
> A given 15 second acoustic recording may have up to 5 species recorded and
> when imported into the relational DB each individual species is parsed into
> its own record as well as records of call notes e.g. Buzz.
>
> The date/time is when the species was recorded and is linked to the
> location.
> Although the call data summary below is summarized by *minute* the actual
> data is recorded by time which includes seconds in addition to minutes.
> So there could be say 3+ files recorded during the same minute but at
> different time periods as seconds (0-59) are included.
>
> Therefore to run the summary stats I need I will need to remove the
> duplicate times that are rounded to the minute.
>
> Again tnx for taking time to reply.
>
> Cheers,
>
> Bruce
>
> I am sorry but I am at a loss here.
> According to your sample data you have 3 Species : Buzz,  Ptedav,
> Ptemes, but you say that "Buzz" indicates that the bat is feeding.
> What has that to do with feeding?
>
> Assuming Buzz is feeding activity, are all incidents of feeding
> activity a single point in time?
>
> Likewise the data has multiple entries such as
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
>
> What does that represent?
>
>
> On Wed, 25 Dec 2019 at 07:29, Neotropical bat risk assessments<neotropical.bats using gmail.com> <neotropical.bats using gmail.com> wrote:
>
> Hi all,
>
> It seems R has gotten better/more packages in dealing with time data.
>
> I want to create "simple" summaries of time for bat activity.
> Data is all in an Access relational database and exported as a CSV file
> with 4 columns in this format:
> Species = a 6 letter code or "Buzz" to indicated when bats are feeding
> Location = a 4 digit number
> Date= MMDDYYYY
> Time=HH:MM (24 hr format)
>
> Species    Location    Date    Time
> Buzz    7716    1/25/2000    0:05
> Buzz    7716    1/25/2000    0:05
> Buzz    7716    1/25/2000    0:05
> Buzz    7716    1/25/2000    0:47
> Buzz    7716    1/25/2000    0:47
> Buzz    7716    1/25/2000    0:47
> Buzz    7716    1/25/2000    0:47
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:17
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:17
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:17
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:17
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:30
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:30
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:30
> Buzz    7717    7/3/2000    20:30
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:14
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:15
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:17
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:17
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:17
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:18
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:18
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:18
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:18
> Ptedav    7717    7/3/2000    20:18
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:15
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:21
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:22
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:23
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:25
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:26
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:27
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:28
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:29
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:33
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:35
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:36
> Ptemes    7717    7/3/2000    23:37
>
> The above is clearly not a complete DF but only a format sample. Data
> begins when the first bat was recorded and ends when the last bat was
> recorded.  So all are times from sunset to sunrise.  Dates roll over so
> for example one night of data would begin at 18:00 1/1/2000 and end
> 06:00 1/2/2000.
>
> What I need to do is have a summary of Buzz events (feeding) and
> calculate the percentage of total time bats were active and have a
> summary of time feeding buzz was recorded and total bat activity to
> determine what percentage of time was spent with feeding attempts over
> the active period.
>
> This by all bats by survey night and by single species by survey night.
> Any suggestions welcomed.
>
> Happy holidays all
>
>
> --
> Bruce W. Miller, PhD.
> Neotropical bat risk assessments
> Conservation Fellow - Wildlife Conservation Society
>
> If we lose the bats, we may lose much of the tropical vegetation and the lungs of the planet
>
> Using acoustic sampling to identify and map species distributions
> and pioneering acoustic tools for ecology and conservation of bats for >25 years.
>
> Key projects include providing free interactive identification keys and call fact sheets for the vocal signatures of New World Bats
>
> ______________________________________________R-help using r-project.org mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, seehttps://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
>
> --
> John Kane
>
>
>
> --
> Bruce W. Miller, PhD.
> Neotropical bat risk assessments
> Conservation Fellow - Wildlife Conservation Society
>
> If we lose the bats, we may lose much of the tropical vegetation and the lungs of the planet
>
> Using acoustic sampling to identify and map species distributions
> and pioneering acoustic tools for ecology and conservation of bats for >25 years.
>
> Key projects include providing free interactive identification keys and call fact sheets for the vocal signatures of New World Bats
>
>
>

--
John Kane